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学习phonics的 29个拼写规则介绍

3 点赞 作者: 秋江 |2018-7-9 18:11 | 查看/评论: 1478/69| 有效评论: 52

这篇是技术贴,主要列出了拼读拼写中的一些规则,需要认真学习。. t6 L* l7 D- E. C
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学习方法是在学习单词的过程中,遇到相应的规则就教给孩子,不用逐条背诵规则。
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记住这些规则,妈妈再也不用担心孩子的英文拼读了。
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1、  Q
9 Q# C- n) h" M; O& T1 HRule:Q is always followedby U. U is not a vowel here.(queen).
$ k1 b/ i( u5 Q& f3 K6 S规则:Q后面总是跟着U,U在这里不是元音。(比如:queen)。+ F- P, r, B* {" {4 Y9 }2 X) u* O
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2、  C( K  J: U2 n: e+ u! X1 H  H
Rule: The letter C usually says [k] (cat,cot, cut), but C saysbefore e, i, or y(cent, city, cycle).
  d$ j, _4 G: h# o/ {. B规则:C通常发音[k] (比如:cat, cot, cut),但是C 在e, i, y前发音。(比如:cent, city, cycle)
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3、  G) u  W+ \& X) O' ~6 w7 b
Rule: The letter g usually says [g] (gate,go, gust), but g may say [dʒ] before e, i, or y (page, giant, gym). The letterse and i following g do not always make the g say [dʒ] (get, girl, give)
; G! }/ w) f% Z7 p. S' G规则:G通常发音[g],但是G 在e, i, y前可能发音[dʒ]。e和i 不一定总是让前面的g发音[dʒ] (比如:get, girl, give)
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1 d. r# m( X# I# w* w& `% f4、  A,E,O,U  b( X; N! L4 m8 y
Rule: A, E, O, U usually say letter name atthe end of a syllable.2 I# [/ G2 S7 q/ J4 H7 I1 p) W* n8 Q
规则:A, E, O, U在音节尾通常发音字母音。
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5、I & Y" z) U3 |6 A" D2 l. _# [
Rule: I and Y may say [ai]at the end of asyllable (si lent, cy cle), but usually say (in ci dent, cy cli cal). Theunaccented suffix-y may say [i:] at the end of a word(ba by, dad dy). The i atthe end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable maysay [i:](ra di o, me di a)2 Q. X1 F% B: p/ f; r+ m
规则:I 和 Y 在音节尾可能发音[ai],但通常发音。/ @- m) }, F5 f5 }; x* W
     非重读音节词尾的后缀y,可能读[i:](实际发音处在长音[i:]和短音之间)。I 在音节尾、下一音节首是另一元音时,i 可能会读[i:] (ra di o, me di a, period, curious); a# ?, |, }# h( q0 |
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6、Y not I
* Y. v9 O  W) @" HRule: English words do not end in i, j, uor v. the letter y, not i, is used at the end of an English word(my).
2 L6 x; q5 b/ e规则:英语单词不以i, j, u o或者 v 结尾。用y替代i用在英语单词词尾。. w, B; G- y* p. S9 R" X. [' h  }5 G: g

  E, x: @9 ~4 y  Y* s5 G# L7、silent final Es& }3 D5 w8 G- h3 e# W
Rule 7-1: silent final e is to let thevowel say its second sound(letter name)& y* j* n: Y1 p. a. v
规则7-1:结尾不发音e使跟它隔一个字母的元音字母发第二音(即字母音,长音);9 {0 {+ j" m% V4 G& ?1 v
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Rule 7-2: silent final e is to prevent usfrom ending an English word with u or v, because English words do not end in i,j, u or v.+ m' R3 A# D  o2 U2 s
规则7-2:避免u和v出现在英语单词词尾。因为英语单词不以i, j, u 或者 v结尾。
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Rule 7-3: silent final e is to soften a cor g(to make c says,g says [dʒ])
6 T! x7 ~6 v- j# ]2 [% W规则7-3: 使c和g读轻音(使c读,g读[dʒ])
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7 W7 Z' Z- M5 S3 s, Q* @, E) L1 rRule 7-4: silent final e is to prevent usfrom having a syllable with no vowel. Every syllable must have a written vowel.* ~! h3 C( t: Y. @2 c
规则7-4: 避免一个音节中没有元音。因为每一个音节都必须要有一个元音字母。
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Rule 7-5ther jobs or unknown reasons:+ ~' u- o; K% E  K6 ]. J& @
(1)    The E keeps a word that is notplural from ending in an ‘s’ Ex: dense(not dens),purse(not purs),false(notfals).跟其他单词的复数形式做区别。
" q: x- u6 o7 @6 y( d7 [$ T/ y(2)    The E adds length to a shortmain-idea word. Ex.: are, ewe, rye.避免单词过短。
" Y  o; ~% ~, r0 S: B/ I9 G(3)    The E gives a distinction inmeaning between homonyms. Ex: or/ore, for/fore.与同音字相区别。8 b% a8 i$ [/ i0 ]7 x  ^8 d. Y- A
(4)    The E is left over from MiddleEnglish or a foreign language where the final E was once pronounced. Ex:treatise, giraffe.在中古英语或外来语中曾经发音的e得以保留下来。9 {8 Z8 d* @. S1 f& ^) l
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8、WOR
+ R7 S# M% ^  z7 ~& HRule: The phonogram or may say [ə:] afterthe w(works).
7 J  A, o. y1 ], d" i. d1 l规则:or通常读[ɔr:],但是or跟在w后,通常读[ə:](例外,仍读[ɔr:] worn sworn sword): O# z1 v; k/ d% b' U  |
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9、IE or EI' `4 e' \7 m' D# }) M& S
Rule: We use the ie most often. We use theie to say [i:](piece), as a suffix(mov ie), to say[ai](pie). We use the eiafter c(re ceive),if we say [ei],and in some exceptions.(Either weird foreignsovereign forfeited leisure. Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.)- b( t! z( b+ l. i6 z, Q; y! _
规则:2 q7 G: l5 x5 m2 E
ie:我们最常用ie.(发音为[i:],[ ai]时用ie,表示后缀时也用ie)* }1 S* a, s. c, B- Y! L
ei:用ei有三种情况:1.在c后;2.如果读[ei](因为ie没有[ei]这个读音);3.例外,这些词可以用以下两个句子:
( j6 e2 K# L1 u  {' GEither weird foreign sovereign forfeitedleisure.( d1 N+ e" _* V; J
Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.
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/ j" g& d  Q$ Y- ]10、SH& p2 w3 ]# j, S8 v* r- W6 y" a& y
Rule: SH is used at the beginning of aword(she),at the end of a syllable/word(fish/fish es),but not at the beginningof any syllable after the first one(na tion), except for theending-ship(friendship).+ }; c4 t" p) H# j! F" D
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规则:SH用在单词词首、在音节或单词尾,但不用在非第一音节的其他首位(除了后缀-ship)' r+ g& W# t8 F! o& W" [7 E
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11、TI, SI, CI8 g7 G+ {! Q; O) W5 U5 Y
Rule11-1: The ti, si, ci say [ʃ] at thebeginning of any syllable after the first one.
, E- M, ]! a2 u- i: o0 l(na tion, man sion, spe cial): b4 e8 t  e+ r" s, r* {, n
规则11-1:ti, si, ci 用在非第一音节的其他首位,读[ʃ]。
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! j6 P# B/ v+ PRule11-2: The si say [ʃ] when the precedingsyllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s(manse/mansion).Only si can say [ʒ]except for ti in “equation”(vision)
* F* p% W1 C& \' Y规则11-2:前面的音节以S结尾或者当根词以s结尾,si读[ʃ],TI, SI, CI中只有si 可以读[ʒ](除了equation中的ti)
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12、ABBREVIATIONS 缩写词
# J5 z) f9 q; R- S, e5 aUse a few letters to represent a larger word(Mr. =Mister, m=meter, CA=California).# l2 z; t& g, V! S( Z# A
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13、CONTRACTIONS 缩略词! K  \- D& L# `/ N, o+ j
Replace a letter (or letters) with anapostrophe to contract (or shorten)a phrase(I am=I’m).0 \' H3 S2 l6 M) o

0 c( Q- v/ c, N0 w0 d$ s1 }14、Rule 1-1-1 suffix$ J* `9 O7 A: ~' S' m( B
Rule: With a one-syllable wordending in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonantbefore adding a vowel suffix(get, getting).
: l- h4 D+ b# s; K9 ?* c, S; }规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的单音节单词,加以元音开头的后缀时,双写最后一个辅音。, u" e" d/ j5 g3 a6 B$ Y; d

7 b4 M$ y. C" `  s; Z15、Rule 2-1-1 Accent
3 L6 E, I% T/ u% A  nRule: With a two-syllable word ending inone vowel the one consonant, double the last consonant before adding avowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable.(for get, for getting)
( `' m' ?( p" n; W- i% _/ p规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的双音节或多音节词,加以元音开头的后缀时,如果重音在最后一个音节,则双写辅音后再加后缀。; e# E$ Y3 X) ?9 i5 g
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16、E’s Dropping Rule
$ ^9 x: b* {& g; @; QRule: Silent final Es commonly lose theneed for the E when adding a vowel suffix(hope/hoping/hopeless). In words likenoticeable or changeable rules 2 and 3 override rule 16.
7 i, A. b( R) c+ J& K# a1 }2 W规则:当加以元音开头的后缀时,一般要去掉结尾不发音的e。但是当符合规则2,3的词比如noticeable 或 changeable,要按照规则2,3,而不用规则16。
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17、F F, L L, S S* `& G' v; ?" L1 K
Rule: We often double F, L, S after asingle vowel at the end of a base word (off, all, confess).
1 C& s' j' {$ z0 E8 O$ KOccasionally other letters are doubled inthis way (ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz).
2 o# y  U$ u  C. P" @3 @4 {8 s规则:单元音后面,词尾的f, l, s通常要双写。(有时还有其他一些字母也双写ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz)
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5 ?& p' n, H2 O4 gRule: AY usually says [ei] at the end of abase word (may, pay). When a word ends with a it says [a:](ma).1 d5 J) O7 V2 R
规则:ay用在单词结尾时通常读[ei]。在词尾的a读[a:]。
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19、I&O% J2 f& i! L4 M( R$ m
Rule: I and O may say [ai] and [əu] whenfollowed by two consonants (find, cold).
' c8 q9 F0 t8 `8 x2 C1 |规则:I 和O后面跟着两个辅音,可能发音[ai]和[əu]。
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5 y7 d$ T% x, l4 F% f' `20、S, X &Suffix-es9 `3 z' L  {3 ?9 n' c
Rule20-1: to make most nouns plural, justadd-s. When the word hisses (ch, tch, sh, x, s, z), changes, or just stops withO, add-es. Occasional words have no change, an internal change, or an irregularspelling.# N6 C5 q) Z- ]8 J  q6 o
规则20-1:一般加s。尾音类似“嘶嘶”音的(ch, tch, sh, x, s, z)、需要y变i、f变v(wife/wives; fly/flies)、或者以o结尾的(tomato/tomatoes),加es。少量单词的复数形式保持原形不变(sheep/sheep),或只变中间(man/men),或是无变化规则的拼写形式(alumnus/alumni; piano/pianos)。6 ]! c$ T4 T$ Q' _- z
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Rule20-2:X is never directlybefore S. (boxes, excel). There is a sound in X.
$ _) g) p) Y9 ]. v* _规则20-2:X从来不用在s前面。X里有的发音。. O0 p& _# \4 y9 l8 A* [; b

9 e$ @& p9 O4 R2 X" b# k21、Dismiss L rule% U7 W7 G9 y) x- t6 [! }3 f
Rule: the words ALL, FULL and till arewritten with one L when they are added to another syllable. (almost, fulfill,careful, until).0 j7 I0 A1 s- D* M8 R* }8 W8 B
规则:all, full, till, 当它们加到词根上形成另一个音节时,只写一个L。
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0 K/ A% ]0 K+ R: `+ h& i22、DGE7 Y( R) m) \+ \" ?( f
Rule: DGE is used only after a single vowelwhich says [æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ] (badge, edge, ridge, lodge, fudge).
; Z+ G. g% E2 R规则:三个字母音图[dʒ](dge),可用在读[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ]的单元音后面。
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* F& ^, K* C4 X$ f" U! o23、TCH" }( F& A9 U. c. z  q
Rule: TCH may be used after a single vowelwhich does not say [ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:](match, watch, sketch, blotch,crutch, butcher)
' p! _' i% ~+ Z( p' C! |0 B规则:TCH [tʃ],可用在不读[ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:]的单元音后面。% ~& b( _  X1 y/ S- q. V
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24、Y’s Suffixes
7 v" [/ @2 |" q% \& x: A! F: \5 JRule: The single vowel Y (not phonogramsay, ey or oy) changes to i when adding a suffix(try/tried, pup py/pup pies)unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing/try ing, -ish/ba by ish).5 k4 \/ d& ^3 [' j* \6 g
规则:以单元音y结尾的单词,加后缀时,要将y改成i,以i开头的后缀除外。6 F: G! k8 @, f8 v( a
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25、CK9 a, v! d0 M8 a# h1 L; _
Rule: CK used only after a single vowelwhich says[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ](back, peck, pick, pock et, truck)
4 V# m  j- ?8 K* U+ {规则:CK只用在读[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ]的单元音后面。( {# e1 @+ J4 A

/ A$ d) E4 f/ _( u" ^. v. F26、CAPITALIZE
: @: o) d# {5 C6 v: \- DRule: Individual names or titles of persons(Jesus), place(Ohio) or things(Bible).
' ?3 f, ?- b1 L& i1 O2 T规则:大写规则。专有名词首字母大写。
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( d( f! q" h3 J. J' a7 k27、Z, NEVER S5 c/ A0 G# s; W. q
Rule: The z, never s, is used to say [z] atthe beginning of a root word (zebra, zoo).
8 O$ ?/ @& `$ [% h4 b& h8 i规则:单词开头发音[z],用z,永远不会用s。
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28、ED
; P( }: ~; V! MRule: The ed says[d]and[t]as the past tenseending of any root word that does not end in the sound [d](killed)or[t](liked).When the ed says[ed]after words ending with d(land/ land ed) or t(act/act ed)they form another syllable.: i* m) ^8 Y2 u" D, U, L5 i* {
规则:根词词尾读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[ed],形成另一个音节。根词词尾不读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[d]或[t]。根词词尾是voiced sound(浊音),读[d](voiced);根词词尾是unvoiced sound(清音),读[t](unvoiced)。
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29、Double Consonants- @% `4 ?+ _) ~8 ~- C$ g
Rule: Double consonants within words ofmore than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling (lit tle, but ton)! o3 Q+ R0 N5 C+ V. c
规则:多音节单词中双写辅音的,为拼写目的需要都读出来(这是给指导教师听写用的规则,学生不需要学习)。+ A" J3 ~/ C" I' @" z/ v- U) v
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最新评论

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0 点赞 Michael.Hu 发表于 2018-7-9 18:33:14
字体没有选择好,有点乱0 M. L3 |/ ]9 M6 e
不过,谢谢分享
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0 点赞 娉婷之宁 发表于 2018-7-9 18:48:28
谢谢好资源分享
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0 点赞 肆公子 发表于 2018-7-9 19:04:56
字体没有选择好,有点乱
2 t" S6 I4 ^. H/ `- _# \' O6 E不过,谢谢分享
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0 点赞 徐冰钰 发表于 2018-7-9 19:27:47
谢谢好资源分享
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0 点赞 wx_翼_pTAoo 发表于 2018-7-9 19:47:36
soft sound是软音,不是轻音。
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0 点赞 胡良平 发表于 2018-7-9 20:21:38
谢谢分享好资源!
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0 点赞 wx_CwCwz 发表于 2018-7-9 20:25:44
谢谢分享好资源
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0 点赞 phoenixjingle 发表于 2018-7-9 20:31:54
谢谢分享好资源
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0 点赞 stellarcw 发表于 2018-7-9 20:32:48
thx 4 sharing
今天要读的故事是2017年凯迪克获奖作品《They All Saw A Cat》,颁奖词对这本书概括得非常精辟:对猫的认知,存在于每个观察者的心中。
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