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学习phonics的 29个拼写规则介绍

3 点赞 作者: 秋江 |2018-7-9 18:11 | 查看/评论: 1845/71| 有效评论: 54

这篇是技术贴,主要列出了拼读拼写中的一些规则,需要认真学习。
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8 e8 s6 u/ |9 p7 u/ U- q学习方法是在学习单词的过程中,遇到相应的规则就教给孩子,不用逐条背诵规则。
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记住这些规则,妈妈再也不用担心孩子的英文拼读了。3 U' @( q; `6 h' @) @7 E

  T  ?5 B0 N1 ?% u! p1、  Q. L- u1 k' ]1 ~1 v* w& e
Rule:Q is always followedby U. U is not a vowel here.(queen).
3 A5 k( j! g# b4 W$ W3 \规则:Q后面总是跟着U,U在这里不是元音。(比如:queen)。# r6 `! D  S" G) j
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2、  C+ |" q& {& y1 g3 U2 |) T, t$ Y' I' V0 M
Rule: The letter C usually says [k] (cat,cot, cut), but C saysbefore e, i, or y(cent, city, cycle).( n; ~+ Q& f0 C, c! T& ]! ]
规则:C通常发音[k] (比如:cat, cot, cut),但是C 在e, i, y前发音。(比如:cent, city, cycle)
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; ]! D8 O+ X8 D3、  G9 r% J$ Z0 g8 a- t. e
Rule: The letter g usually says [g] (gate,go, gust), but g may say [dʒ] before e, i, or y (page, giant, gym). The letterse and i following g do not always make the g say [dʒ] (get, girl, give)
& A0 [/ x' E! ?3 O" z4 i规则:G通常发音[g],但是G 在e, i, y前可能发音[dʒ]。e和i 不一定总是让前面的g发音[dʒ] (比如:get, girl, give)) P/ @  E2 e5 _
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4、  A,E,O,U' Z- F! s7 f! \$ j
Rule: A, E, O, U usually say letter name atthe end of a syllable.5 o3 W$ Y+ U% A
规则:A, E, O, U在音节尾通常发音字母音。
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5、I & Y
6 O% u6 T# J& F. P/ c3 @. ERule: I and Y may say [ai]at the end of asyllable (si lent, cy cle), but usually say (in ci dent, cy cli cal). Theunaccented suffix-y may say [i:] at the end of a word(ba by, dad dy). The i atthe end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable maysay [i:](ra di o, me di a)
* ?9 N4 O  c8 W规则:I 和 Y 在音节尾可能发音[ai],但通常发音。
) K; O& M( @# `' K9 D+ ~     非重读音节词尾的后缀y,可能读[i:](实际发音处在长音[i:]和短音之间)。I 在音节尾、下一音节首是另一元音时,i 可能会读[i:] (ra di o, me di a, period, curious)5 @0 C9 h) h$ f$ Z; t2 j$ y# \, O

6 W2 s$ G. ]; |6、Y not I4 H- `- |9 p, ~( m5 ^
Rule: English words do not end in i, j, uor v. the letter y, not i, is used at the end of an English word(my).
" y9 g3 ^3 `8 Q( ]规则:英语单词不以i, j, u o或者 v 结尾。用y替代i用在英语单词词尾。
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+ G; r0 z" O' r" Z7 @+ _7、silent final Es
6 q. S& i3 s2 R% V+ uRule 7-1: silent final e is to let thevowel say its second sound(letter name)
0 d/ V. s, \( [5 S- i( k6 p规则7-1:结尾不发音e使跟它隔一个字母的元音字母发第二音(即字母音,长音);" D  b  b/ N' J( g1 k& G2 V
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Rule 7-2: silent final e is to prevent usfrom ending an English word with u or v, because English words do not end in i,j, u or v.
" R* i7 S$ d6 v! d规则7-2:避免u和v出现在英语单词词尾。因为英语单词不以i, j, u 或者 v结尾。  M7 W0 b' G6 ~
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Rule 7-3: silent final e is to soften a cor g(to make c says,g says [dʒ])
  o9 H# G9 L' O+ u- K规则7-3: 使c和g读轻音(使c读,g读[dʒ])
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Rule 7-4: silent final e is to prevent usfrom having a syllable with no vowel. Every syllable must have a written vowel.
" `7 \$ k3 z6 I规则7-4: 避免一个音节中没有元音。因为每一个音节都必须要有一个元音字母。- s" y+ p4 `6 A7 `; {" `
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Rule 7-5ther jobs or unknown reasons:
( y6 C: _" P+ e% z1 z: g4 {(1)    The E keeps a word that is notplural from ending in an ‘s’ Ex: dense(not dens),purse(not purs),false(notfals).跟其他单词的复数形式做区别。
4 G% ^# h; G; i(2)    The E adds length to a shortmain-idea word. Ex.: are, ewe, rye.避免单词过短。
; u( F: J. E; t) j- [(3)    The E gives a distinction inmeaning between homonyms. Ex: or/ore, for/fore.与同音字相区别。7 ^, y" b$ W' @+ g! u' k
(4)    The E is left over from MiddleEnglish or a foreign language where the final E was once pronounced. Ex:treatise, giraffe.在中古英语或外来语中曾经发音的e得以保留下来。
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8、WOR
% O( Y: o5 {- }6 z$ q6 I' X6 yRule: The phonogram or may say [ə:] afterthe w(works).: _/ p4 t( M( }7 O
规则:or通常读[ɔr:],但是or跟在w后,通常读[ə:](例外,仍读[ɔr:] worn sworn sword)5 i- B: p- b5 U/ J: }

, U. d( Z! W2 J6 @9、IE or EI6 h" X( O$ a0 T# B& c
Rule: We use the ie most often. We use theie to say [i:](piece), as a suffix(mov ie), to say[ai](pie). We use the eiafter c(re ceive),if we say [ei],and in some exceptions.(Either weird foreignsovereign forfeited leisure. Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.)
5 ]! L& _0 L% _* D: M规则:# I- \" C6 m' T; _& W1 ~
ie:我们最常用ie.(发音为[i:],[ ai]时用ie,表示后缀时也用ie)" L- W: j$ @* m+ a0 [$ ?4 U# Y' ~1 `
ei:用ei有三种情况:1.在c后;2.如果读[ei](因为ie没有[ei]这个读音);3.例外,这些词可以用以下两个句子:
, u- O: ^; z$ VEither weird foreign sovereign forfeitedleisure.
  s1 @# Y  |( m& Q3 M) LNeither heifer seized counterfeit protein.
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# e/ H. A4 x, J5 M4 D9 h; c' _10、SH
( A1 O2 s9 c  [( Q' G9 YRule: SH is used at the beginning of aword(she),at the end of a syllable/word(fish/fish es),but not at the beginningof any syllable after the first one(na tion), except for theending-ship(friendship).3 x8 l1 R/ p; p- p  M8 K$ C
Rule:
0 a/ ~  V! f6 V/ k. x3 q# A规则:SH用在单词词首、在音节或单词尾,但不用在非第一音节的其他首位(除了后缀-ship)
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11、TI, SI, CI7 b7 a3 {, ]$ W: R+ H
Rule11-1: The ti, si, ci say [ʃ] at thebeginning of any syllable after the first one.
; @1 A) f8 \+ X$ B2 T9 c(na tion, man sion, spe cial)
. y3 v/ {& A( P8 F: E  }规则11-1:ti, si, ci 用在非第一音节的其他首位,读[ʃ]。. v% e0 Y/ R+ J

2 G1 K% l' J; W" k: I6 d5 k5 D, [( V0 iRule11-2: The si say [ʃ] when the precedingsyllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s(manse/mansion).Only si can say [ʒ]except for ti in “equation”(vision)
* f/ m+ Z0 a# k$ i规则11-2:前面的音节以S结尾或者当根词以s结尾,si读[ʃ],TI, SI, CI中只有si 可以读[ʒ](除了equation中的ti)) t7 }1 x. ?3 z' a. A$ z' H/ s

8 B; w, B! [6 i- s5 N% K12、ABBREVIATIONS 缩写词0 b/ f5 K7 a; C
Use a few letters to represent a larger word(Mr. =Mister, m=meter, CA=California).- z; ~  K! k0 m/ w+ Y( k- U

6 s5 p8 E% I$ h6 k7 b13、CONTRACTIONS 缩略词
& b0 }2 A( i/ I1 D2 j3 P+ Q- eReplace a letter (or letters) with anapostrophe to contract (or shorten)a phrase(I am=I’m).
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14、Rule 1-1-1 suffix
" H0 \3 ?" q5 x& Y+ Q; o! gRule: With a one-syllable wordending in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonantbefore adding a vowel suffix(get, getting).8 e9 Q# j8 \8 B3 `4 g) q" @
规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的单音节单词,加以元音开头的后缀时,双写最后一个辅音。
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15、Rule 2-1-1 Accent
( P9 P0 U$ w9 w) pRule: With a two-syllable word ending inone vowel the one consonant, double the last consonant before adding avowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable.(for get, for getting)$ d& i2 Y, c8 K% C
规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的双音节或多音节词,加以元音开头的后缀时,如果重音在最后一个音节,则双写辅音后再加后缀。
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16、E’s Dropping Rule+ z8 F6 h" g( Q, F8 q
Rule: Silent final Es commonly lose theneed for the E when adding a vowel suffix(hope/hoping/hopeless). In words likenoticeable or changeable rules 2 and 3 override rule 16.2 F+ X  x$ {9 ^3 p: n- h
规则:当加以元音开头的后缀时,一般要去掉结尾不发音的e。但是当符合规则2,3的词比如noticeable 或 changeable,要按照规则2,3,而不用规则16。
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* s  J+ C7 @: E7 A17、F F, L L, S S
2 x% W/ ?/ V! HRule: We often double F, L, S after asingle vowel at the end of a base word (off, all, confess).( e$ g* R9 e+ H2 D; n4 H0 d* A8 S% Z
Occasionally other letters are doubled inthis way (ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz).8 F9 [% H3 G9 M6 g8 V, b, B
规则:单元音后面,词尾的f, l, s通常要双写。(有时还有其他一些字母也双写ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz)) D% ^' t4 C" {6 Q

# R7 u% i- J: K, Z% K) b: |18、AY
0 M' ~- d4 T" A/ `3 p  f6 CRule: AY usually says [ei] at the end of abase word (may, pay). When a word ends with a it says [a:](ma).. `% F# x; y7 a" |0 e* F. {- ~
规则:ay用在单词结尾时通常读[ei]。在词尾的a读[a:]。
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19、I&O' I1 i- L: `( p/ T, w" E' j
Rule: I and O may say [ai] and [əu] whenfollowed by two consonants (find, cold).4 p5 X$ F3 V8 c0 F# }0 p
规则:I 和O后面跟着两个辅音,可能发音[ai]和[əu]。$ f% ~, [: n8 j1 x6 z8 V! L
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20、S, X &Suffix-es/ n) m5 v1 c8 m2 u, b) a
Rule20-1: to make most nouns plural, justadd-s. When the word hisses (ch, tch, sh, x, s, z), changes, or just stops withO, add-es. Occasional words have no change, an internal change, or an irregularspelling.7 E$ `8 m( r3 Y( H6 x( y+ Z- q
规则20-1:一般加s。尾音类似“嘶嘶”音的(ch, tch, sh, x, s, z)、需要y变i、f变v(wife/wives; fly/flies)、或者以o结尾的(tomato/tomatoes),加es。少量单词的复数形式保持原形不变(sheep/sheep),或只变中间(man/men),或是无变化规则的拼写形式(alumnus/alumni; piano/pianos)。1 G( _$ w* k& g4 y( g$ `. j. T& S

3 R9 `7 F8 {' TRule20-2:X is never directlybefore S. (boxes, excel). There is a sound in X.3 Z* v+ O7 e* o: b
规则20-2:X从来不用在s前面。X里有的发音。- u, D4 U$ N; D+ C# v7 T3 m6 N

$ C& O: T# @5 V' o21、Dismiss L rule
, K- n; b( p+ U3 vRule: the words ALL, FULL and till arewritten with one L when they are added to another syllable. (almost, fulfill,careful, until).
4 L3 w5 s! j& I0 Y  Q; b: N+ }; A规则:all, full, till, 当它们加到词根上形成另一个音节时,只写一个L。
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22、DGE
0 V. V$ m; p5 i- H8 URule: DGE is used only after a single vowelwhich says [æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ] (badge, edge, ridge, lodge, fudge).
+ Y1 P" M" A3 r5 B* ^4 R5 M# L规则:三个字母音图[dʒ](dge),可用在读[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ]的单元音后面。8 a4 T- F' j# n6 l& ^

# F9 ~/ n- J: j0 C: \7 A7 p$ F* M23、TCH2 [1 R, B( c8 s' S+ n7 S1 f
Rule: TCH may be used after a single vowelwhich does not say [ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:](match, watch, sketch, blotch,crutch, butcher)
4 x" i' X4 f' ^. d, M, J1 V规则:TCH [tʃ],可用在不读[ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:]的单元音后面。
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! w. c+ F: v. F+ [. w24、Y’s Suffixes
/ N% Y$ Q$ W6 P' x5 K9 g9 }Rule: The single vowel Y (not phonogramsay, ey or oy) changes to i when adding a suffix(try/tried, pup py/pup pies)unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing/try ing, -ish/ba by ish).
" {* H6 t2 O  j4 U$ r$ a1 g+ h/ T规则:以单元音y结尾的单词,加后缀时,要将y改成i,以i开头的后缀除外。
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6 ]6 n: C8 V3 m* s( B+ s- U5 C" c/ I25、CK$ m8 e$ e2 d1 _- V
Rule: CK used only after a single vowelwhich says[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ](back, peck, pick, pock et, truck)0 k0 J9 ]% X6 Q" l  S
规则:CK只用在读[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ]的单元音后面。5 i7 C& x0 ?' R: T: H5 Y4 k
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26、CAPITALIZE
3 ]6 D+ v$ w8 Q' mRule: Individual names or titles of persons(Jesus), place(Ohio) or things(Bible).( U' D: H: A* |) H, P4 f% O* J; k
规则:大写规则。专有名词首字母大写。% K* ~7 [  J. {

8 X) W' t: n& O+ P27、Z, NEVER S6 A' p8 r3 z$ R+ ~# S# }: l( s
Rule: The z, never s, is used to say [z] atthe beginning of a root word (zebra, zoo).
. G; [( }: a! }. q+ e规则:单词开头发音[z],用z,永远不会用s。
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/ z( e7 h" C- _& w& }% ?% I3 L28、ED
/ _" k8 l3 @' R! A" C, nRule: The ed says[d]and[t]as the past tenseending of any root word that does not end in the sound [d](killed)or[t](liked).When the ed says[ed]after words ending with d(land/ land ed) or t(act/act ed)they form another syllable.( r, m! P' W; h, X% I3 Z( |+ V
规则:根词词尾读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[ed],形成另一个音节。根词词尾不读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[d]或[t]。根词词尾是voiced sound(浊音),读[d](voiced);根词词尾是unvoiced sound(清音),读[t](unvoiced)。! H0 m8 y) F. ~% O5 u

, _* G0 `# X$ {29、Double Consonants
, ?* n7 o' b3 ^/ q6 U6 LRule: Double consonants within words ofmore than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling (lit tle, but ton)
0 a* }4 ~+ M/ H* C1 c4 u) T规则:多音节单词中双写辅音的,为拼写目的需要都读出来(这是给指导教师听写用的规则,学生不需要学习)。
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最新评论

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0 点赞 Michael.Hu 发表于 2018-7-9 18:33:14
字体没有选择好,有点乱
0 E1 p! t6 f7 ~) ?+ N0 `$ o; q  ^不过,谢谢分享
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0 点赞 娉婷之宁 发表于 2018-7-9 18:48:28
谢谢好资源分享
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0 点赞 肆公子 发表于 2018-7-9 19:04:56
字体没有选择好,有点乱
2 T" b5 m% N5 E; v; ?8 S, E不过,谢谢分享
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0 点赞 徐冰钰 发表于 2018-7-9 19:27:47
谢谢好资源分享
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0 点赞 wx_翼_pTAoo 发表于 2018-7-9 19:47:36
soft sound是软音,不是轻音。
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0 点赞 胡良平 发表于 2018-7-9 20:21:38
谢谢分享好资源!
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0 点赞 wx_CwCwz 发表于 2018-7-9 20:25:44
谢谢分享好资源
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0 点赞 phoenixjingle 发表于 2018-7-9 20:31:54
谢谢分享好资源
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0 点赞 stellarcw 发表于 2018-7-9 20:32:48
thx 4 sharing
今天要读的故事是充满人间大爱的母鸡海蒂《Hattie Peck》,相关阅读有《Hattie Peck: The Journey Home》。。。
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