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美国小学常用的12种阅读(理解)策略

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12 Comprehension Strategies

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Keep scrolling to learn about the WHY, WHEN, HOW of:  

Monitor/Clarify, Predict,Make Connections, Infer,Ask Questions, Summarize, Subtext, Visualize, Retell,Synthesize,  Nonfiction Text Features

The following is a compilation from numerous sources written by Mrs. Araujo.

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Monitor/Clarify

Why do we Monitor/Clarify?

  • To make sense of our reading
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When do we Monitor/Clarify?

  • When the reading no longer makes sense
  • When we are stuck on a word’s meaning/ Q  u7 X& Z2 Y& x4 _" c8 ^, Q

How do we Monitor/Clarify?

  • Reread all around the word or area in question.  Make substitutions, use picture clues
  • Use your schema
  • Study the structure
  • Predict, infer, make connections, ask questions, summarize, a3 V) ?, R+ |8 k, ^& G* G! I) Y

Predict

Why do we Predict?

  • Gets our mind ready to read
  • Gives us a purpose to read1 P0 Y2 ?$ A9 j) A

When do we Predict?

  • Before and during reading
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How do we Predict?

  • Think about title, look at cover and pictures
  • Think about the text structure
  • Use what you know
  • Ask questions ~ I wonder. . .,  Who is. . .,  Why is. . . .
  • Change your predictions as you read
  • Can be proven or not
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Make Connections

Why do we Make Connections?

  • Reading is thinking!  Good readers make connections that are text to self, text to text, and text to world
  • To better predict and understand text because of what you already know  ~ how the characters feel,  what may happen based on another text. . . .
  • T-S means more to me because it reminds me of my own life.  Everyone has different schema and different experiences which can be shared to help us understand more5 t: B  r4 q6 Z3 A! n

When do we Make Connections?

  • Before, during, and after reading
  • Make connections when you’re figuring out unknown words!
  • When we are reminded of a similar event
  • T-S :   That reminds me of . . .   I remember when . . .  I have a connection . . .  An experience I have had like that . . .  I felt like that character when . . .  If I were that character I would . . . .
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Content ~ I’ve read another book on this topic

Genre~ this is a “mystery” (etc.) like. . .

Author ~ this author always. . .

Illustrator ~ I recognize these pictures by. . .

Setting ~ ___________ took place at this location

Characters ~ she/he reminds me of. . .

Illustrations ~ remind me of . . .

Plot ~ this story is like. . .

Structure ~ this story has a literary device (like a flashback) like. . .

Theme ~ this book had the same lesson as . . .

Language ~ the writer’s language reminds me of. . .

Tone ~ this book has the same feel as. . .

  • T-W on nonfiction ~ open your mental files and make connections between what you know and the new information
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How do we Make Connections?

  • Chart connections.  What connections helped to understand the story, which didn’t?
  • Venn diagrams
  • Connect to the theme or main idea of the text
  • Start with “It helps me understand . . .”  (Character feelings, setting, events)
  • Activate prior knowledge before, during, and after reading
  • On nonfiction (T-W) make a KWL chart.  Do T-W with newspaper articles, too!
  • Use a double entry journal ~ one side is for key event, idea, word, quote, or content.  The other is for connections.
  • Always ask yourself “How does this connection help me understand the text?”
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Infer

Why do we Infer?

  • Authors describe:   characters’ feelings, events, setting. . . we have to infer to understand
  • To draw conclusions, make predictions, and reflect on our reading
  • To determine the meanings of unknown words9 q8 x* ?0 \. c( Y

When do we Infer?

  • Before, during, and after reading
  • In life, we infer with our 5 senses ~ What is making that noise?  What is cooking?  How is that person feeling?  What is this sharp object?  What does a cake with candles on it mean?
  • When the author doesn’t answer my questions, I must infer by saying:  Maybe. . ., I think. . ., It could be. . ., It’s because. . ., Perhaps. . ., It means that. . ., I’m guessing. . .
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How do we Infer?

  • Look at the picture
  • Think about the characters’ behavior
  • Ask questions as you read.  Some of our questions are answered in the text, others are not and must be inferred.
  • We use our prior knowledge + text clues to draw conclusions: n, S- r8 O& h0 @* p

What do we Infer?

  • Meaning of unfamiliar words
  • Setting
  • Explanation for events
  • What the character is feeling
  • What pronouns refer to
  • Author’s message
  • Answers to our questions when they are not directly stated
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Fun Inferring Practice!  Read these sentences, and have a discussion about the character and setting.  Next, draw conclusions, and make predictions!

  • Sue blew out the candles and got presents.
  • Mary plays her flute for two hours every day.
  • The boat drifted in the middle of the lake.
  • John ran into the street without looking.
  • Meg was the star pitcher, but she had a broken finger.
  • We bought tickets and some popcorn.
  • I forgot to set my alarm clock last night.
  • When I woke up, there were branches and leaves all over the yard.
  • Yesterday we cleaned out our desks and took everything home.
  • Everyone stopped when the referee blew the whistle.) S. ?( U) Y) T' k3 r" j4 ~

Ask Questions

Why do we Ask Questions?

  • To clarify, wonder, determine author’s style or intent, to better understand, when the reading gets confusing, to monitor our reading, to synthesize new information, and to determine importance
  • To stay actively involved in the reading
  • To read with a purpose
  • To deepen comprehension (Thick vs. Thin Questions)8 q* ]& X% P. W# Z4 k5 s; y

When do we Ask Questions?

  • Before, during, and after reading ~ just look at the cover and title and begin asking!
  • When you use the strategies:  Is my prediction good or do I need to change it?  What am I visualizing?  Do I need to change my mental image?  What’s happened so far?   Does this remind me of anything?
  • If we don’t have the background knowledge we need to ask more questions.
  • Hearing other people’s questions inspires more of our own questions.
  • As you read, does it make sense?
  • Just go outside ~ what questions do you have about nature?  What questions do you have about a painting or illustration?
  • To coincide with the Reading CAFE, ask yourself who/what each paragraph was about as a way to monitor your reading.  Reread if you cannot answer who/what.
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How do we Ask Questions?

  • Start by using a wordless book ~ what questions do I have?
  • Before we read and as we read many of our questions are predictions.  Our “after the book has been read” questions are the most thought provoking.
  • Create an “I Wonder” chart before, during, and after the story.  Which questions were answered?  Which had to be inferred?
  • There are 3 types of questions ~ Predicting Questions move us forward, Monitor Questions pull us back, Thinking Questions makes us infer
  • Questions start with who, what, where, when, why, how, would, could, should, did
  • What happened?  Why did it happen?  Think about cause and effect.
  • Thick questions deepen our comprehension and thin questions can be found in the text
  • Questions can be related to the text  type ~ narrative, expository, technical, persuasive, or text structure ~  sequence, problem/solution, cause/effect, descriptive, compare/contrast
  • We use connections to help us make meaningful questions
  • Ask ~ What does my question do for my reading?
  • Begin with a KWL chart for nonfiction texts
  • Give students a list of answers.  THEY come up with the questions!
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How do we answer Questions?

  • A – answered in the text, BK – answered from someone’s background knowledge I – inferred, D – discussion, RS – research needed C- signals confusion
  • We also use our own interpretation, the pictures, and rereading& ^# p) x) E# _9 l+ M

Types of Questions

  • Does the question start with: What did, Who did, How many, What was, Who are, What does ___ mean, Define, What kind ~ then the answer is RIGHT THERE
  • Does the question start with: How do you, How did, What, What happened to, What happened before/after, How many times, What examples, Where did ~ then I must THINK and SEARCH for the answer.  The answer is found in different parts of the story.  Words to create the question and answer are not in the same sentence.
  • Does the question start with:  Have you ever, If you could, If you were going to, In your opinion, Do you agree with, Do you know anyone who, How do you feel about ~ then you are ON YOUR OWN and you need to think about the answer.  The answer is NOT in the story.) G/ j' e6 H) o' G: h: ]

Questions to think about

  • What is the author trying to tell us?
  • Why did the author write this book?
  • Is the title appropriate?  What is my evidence?
  • What did the character learn?
  • Who/what is each paragraph about?8 \* B  p1 \, G: }$ F) T& @+ x

Summarize

Why do we Summarize?

  • To identify and organize important information
  • To check understanding in a brief way
  • To find the main idea, and/or problem/solution
  • To put the story in order0 x9 j8 q( n1 G

When do we Summarize?

  • When reading, giving game instructions, talking quickly about our week-end, explaining newspaper articles. . .
  • Before, during, and after reading9 i7 y# `- ?/ Z8 V/ n8 y* ?

How do we Summarize?

  • In our own words
  • Before we read we preview to see how the text is organized by looking at cover, table of contents, illustrations
  • During reading we keep a graphic organizer and jot down what has happened
  • After reading we skim text and determine the most important parts in 3-5 sentences. What can we leave out?  Use the graphic organizer to help
  • When it is nonfiction we use the text structure to create a summary:  descriptive, problem/solution, compare/contrast, sequential, main idea/detail, cause/effect
  • Pick out what’s necessary ~ title, captions, headings.  Cross out repeated items.  Highlight necessary ideas and key words, make a graphic organizer with key words and ideas for each paragraph, invent a topic sentence by using the first sentence of the text
  • Omit unimportant details
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  Subtext

What do we Subtext?

  • To understand perspectives and inner most thoughts of characters
  • To examine what the character is thinking, not saying
  • To comprehend the text more deeply1 q7 ~+ ^$ a8 h2 w# r9 M3 e' F- x

When do we Subtext?

  • During reading, ~3 |/ F* n& B0 Y

How do we Subtext?

  • Act out a character in a text by making personal connections and inferring the character’s thoughts by using the illustrations in the text
  • Become a character in a painting.  What are you thinking, feeling?
  • Write an advertisement for a product.  Who is your target audience?  What can you say to convince people to buy your product?
  • Subtext what various people think on the same issue.  For example ~ A child wanting candy thinks:  “It’s delicious!  It gives me energy!  It’s fun to eat!  I’ve been good!”  A mom may think:  “It’s bad for his teeth!  It’s supper time!  He’ll get sick!”  A store clerk would think:  “Buy the candy!  I need to make money!”  A doctor might think:  “He’s gaining too much weight.  Does he ever eat vegetables?”  An onlooker may think:  “What a mean mom. One candy bar won’t hurt.” 8 q2 v" y: c$ w! k1 l9 x3 Z& o2 n0 B

Visualize/Sensory Imagery

What do we Visualize?

  • Fiction, nonfiction, poetry, a football game on the radio, menu items, instructions, magazine articles, a vision from a song or nature cd. . . .
  • Visualize a birthday cake, sketch it, compare ~ no 2 sketches will be alike!+ b0 W" K2 n4 h7 \( P. a8 }4 G

Authors rely on us to Visualize.  Why?  TO:

  • Keep us interested
  • Enhance understanding
  • Draw conclusions
  • Recall details and text after it has been read
  • Help us understand new words
  • Make texts personal and memorable
  • Form unique interpretations
  • Clarify
  • Help us when we write
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When do we Visualize?

  • During and after reading
  • When there are no illustrations but WARNING:  illustrations can have an effect on our mental images.  Try covering the illustrations with post-it notes and use your own mental images
  • Our schema, or background knowledge, helps us visualize
  • Hearing other people describe their mental pictures changes our own
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How do we Visualize?

  • Using our senses and emotions
  • Pay close attention to the adjectives and adverbs
  • Picturing the characters, setting, events
  • We infer meaning as we create images
  • Quickly sketch what you saw and compare ~ no two sketches are alike!
  • As you read, revise your images when new information is added
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Retell

Why do we Retell?

  • To create a mental image in great detail to someone who was not there, or to someone who has not read the text
  • Learning to retell a story thoughtfully is critical to learning to write a story
  • To build comprehension
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When do we Retell?

  • After reading or after an event (after a movie, vacation, week-end, etc.)
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How do we Retell?

  • Read the story 3x ~ (1st for impression, 2nd for detail, 3rd for comprehension)
  • Use retelling cards, small props, puppets, story guideline posters, and even the book to help as you learn to retell.
  • Tell the story. Don’t memorize the author’s words but develop a personal, storytelling voice.
  • Use an expressive voice.
  • Pick what is most important to tell.
  • Tell details in the right order.
  • Recall the story structure and formulate retelling around that
  • For Fiction:  beginning/middle/end, characters, setting, theme, plot episodes/events, resolution, sequence of events, in great detail the beginning, next, then, after that, in the end
  • For Nonfiction:  problem/solution, descriptive, compare/contrast, sequential, main idea/detail, cause/effect, use the table of contents to help+ e, b: Q7 J9 a  F; j, o. p

Synthesize/Evaluate

Why do we Synthesize/Evaluate?

  • Our thinking evolves
  • We infer
  • We connect to a larger and more meaningful whole by finding the “big idea”
  • To see relationships between ideas ~ do we agree or disagree with the author?  Why?
  • Makes the reading more memorable) f  Z: k6 z; J0 h+ ~! e% k6 h7 ~3 s. T- S

When do we Synthesize/Evaluate?

  • When there is something to think about, such as an unfamiliar point of view, new information, a new theme
  • When making connections
  • Before, during and after reading
  • Before:  What connections am I making?  What does the author want to teach me?  What is the message going to be?  What am I thinking?
  • During:  Now what do I wonder?  What are my connections?   How have my opinions, ideas, feelings, and thoughts about the characters, ideas, or problems in the reading change?
  • After:  What did the authors want me to learn?  What was the theme?  How have my ideas, thoughts, and feelings about the characters, ideas, or problems change?  What visual images will I remember?  What thought will I take with me?
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How do we Synthesize/Evaluate?

  • By filling in these blanks:
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  • At first I thought but now I think . . . .
  • At first I felt but now I feel . . . .
  • I have been changed by this text in this way. . . .
  • From reading this text I will remember. . . .
  • The theme in this text was. . . .
  • An “aha” I got from the reading was. . . .
  • A light bulb went on in my head and I realized. . . .
  • My opinion on this topic now is. . . .
  • I will remember the visual I built in my mind for. . . .
  • I now agree/disagree with the author because. . . .
  • I feel the author’s style is. . . .
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  • Start by synthesizing fables
  • Use your schema or background knowledge
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Nonfiction Text Features

Why do we read Nonfiction?

  • To learn
  • To build a better home/school connection ~ nonfiction resembles parent interests and will spark a conversation between parent and child
  • A great way to learn about the reading strategies
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When do we read Nonfiction?

  • To get information
  • When we have questions about the world
  • Start reading nonfiction at a young age!2 y& _3 h, W2 f4 R, `9 S

Examples of Predictable Features of Nonfiction ~ each child should create a journal giving examples of each.  Spend one day on each convention:

  • Table of contents helps reader to find key topics in the text in order
  • Types of print helps reader by signaling what is important
  • Headings/subtitles helps reader determine what is important
  • Maps help reader understand where things are in the world
  • Cutaways help reader understand something by looking at it from the inside
  • Comparisons help reader understand the size of one thing by comparing it to the size of something familiar
  • Captions help the reader understand a picture or photograph
  • Photographs help reader understand exactly what something looks like
  • Labels help reader identify a picture or photograph and its parts
  • Tables help reader understand important information by seeing it listed in a table or chart form
  • Glossary helps reader understand key words in text
  • Index helps reader by showing an alphabetical listing with page numbers to find information
  • Close-ups help reader see details& e7 G0 O+ n% M9 b" h/ P  T2 e* r

How do we read Nonfiction?

  • First, build and activate prior knowledge to get ready to learn/make predictions
  • Learn the new vocabulary in context ~ engage learner through photographs or artifacts and student questions, explore through graphic organizers, develop through dramatization and analogies, and apply through a project
  • KWL charts:  what do I know, what questions do I want answered, what have I learned ~ synthesize the information for yourself and others
  • Make connections
  • Recognize text structure:  problem/.solution. descriptive, compare/contrast, sequential, main idea/detail, cause/effect
  • You don’t need to read nonfiction in order
  • Reread and paraphrase
  • Skim (very rapid reading of whole text in order to grasp sense of main idea and some supporting details ~ goal is to get a quick sense of the entire piece, as the reading progresses concentrate only on key sentences and phases, concentrate on last paragraph which is a summary)
  • Scan (quick location of material, forms a mental image of key words and phrases)
  • Highlight important information to remember/use sticky notes
  • Start by reading biographies
  • Take notes of main ideas and details+ y" l0 ]4 f% d+ i* U0 @

Check out this awesome interactive website on strategies and more!

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英语启蒙中,绘本和分级读物到底选哪个?

英语启蒙中,绘本和分级读物到底选哪个?

英语启蒙要以英文绘本为主,还是分级读物才是正餐,绘本只是甜点? 绘本应该怎么看?
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