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The strange case of Dr. Jekll and Mr. Hyde读后感

热度 15已有 73 次阅读 |2018-5-15 20:10

<div>当作者第一次安排Mr. Utterson 在街头撞见Mr. Hyde时,我意识到Mr. Hyde就是Dr. Jekyll。毕竟这不是一本严格意义上的推理小说。Mr. Utterson在Dr. Jekyll的信中读到医生的忏悔”If I am the chief of sinners, I am the chief of sufferers also”, 我更坚信我的判断。问题的关键是,对于医生提出的被可怜或同情的诉求,我们能否应允?</div><div><br></div><div>诚然,医生是可悲的:他的名誉和声望被他亲手创造出来的恶魔毁灭。或者更可悲的是,那个诚实善良谦逊的医生的灵魂被锁死在一个丑陋龌龊的躯壳内,与一个十恶不赦的罪恶一起等待死亡。</div><div><br></div><div>也许,医生会辩解:他出生于富裕家庭,从小父母和社会就给他贴上了精英的标签, 在大众面前他的一举一动一言一行都必须大方得体以符合他的精英身份。然而Dr. Jekyll对此却充满了苦恼。他无法表达自己真实的感受,无法享受悦己的成就感和快感。他无法摆脱这种压抑的情绪直到他偶然地获得一个配方,喝下药剂后能变成一个完全不一样的人,去做那些他曾经渴望而又不敢的事情,包括犯罪。这种刺激对于Dr. Jekyll这种戴了多年面具而终于有机会得以解脱的人而言,绝对是难以拒绝的。</div><div><br></div><div>也许,Dr. Jekyll大可将他的错误,包括罪行,归咎于家庭或社会。 是这种外界的因素将他塑造成一个他并不想成为的人,因而他只能通过其他途径来展示他所谓的本性。 搞笑的是,大众的声音和行为,居然真的可以间接甚至直接左右司法以及潜在罪犯的心理。本着对绝对正义的追求,大众期望在每一个案件里都能实现最大化的公正,无论是对受害人还是嫌疑人。正如书中,当Dr. Jekyll的仆人Poole明确地告诉Mr. Utterson楼上的不是Dr. Jekyll时,这位律师心里却依然保有侥幸:”This is a very strange tale, Poole; this is rather a tale my man.” 因为Mr. Utterson不能接受他的老朋友兼客户真的干了愚蠢的事情。</div><div><br></div><div>然而这种理想化的追求,却又可能会酿成更大的悲剧。在电影十二怒汉中,陪审团里原本只有亨利方达一个人支持那个小男孩是无辜的。他据理力争,最终说服了另外11个人中的10个人。这似乎是一场民主的胜利。但是,如果那个小男孩真的是凶手,而且故意设局留下模棱两可的线索,最终逃离正义的审判,后续又更肆无忌惮地犯罪呢?</div><div><br></div><div>更搞笑的是, 大众有时候甚至沦为犯罪的帮凶, 尤其是在信息时代。在电影Untraceable中, 受害者被虐待的程度会随着观看的网民点击率增加而加剧;被杀害的过程会随着观看的网民点击率增加而缩短。这些看客,有的是出于猎奇,有的是出于兴奋,而其他的则有如Dr. Jekyll一样在平时不能展现出罪恶行为却能通过另外一种方式释放内心深处的邪恶。所以,在这部电影里,谁是凶手?不是你,不是我,而是我们社会中的每一个人。&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>所以,成年人就可以以家庭成长环境,童年的不幸,社会媒体的渲染,甚至精神状态为借口而不用为他们的错误行为负责了吗?并不是。实际上,一个成年人,假设他充分了解并理解通用的社会道德与司法体系并且神志清醒,一旦他犯了罪,就必须按照法律准则接受相应的惩罚而不能容忍各种借口。要知道,对恶人太多的怜悯,就是对他们的纵容和庇护,就是对正义和良知的践踏。</div><div>又或者,是不是因为法不责众,其他人都在作恶,我也可以肆无忌惮地作恶?在人类近代史上最大的悲剧,卢旺达惨遭, 中,短短两个月时间里,约80-100万无辜的居民惨遭杀害。在这其中,胡图族的居民是主要的刽子手,更可怕的是,这些刽子手中不乏一些低龄儿童。是的,这些刽子手在事后也没有受到法律的制裁。但是,在他们的余生,他们一定逃不过内心道德的煎熬。相反,在二战期间,德国人大肆屠杀犹太人,无论这些的德国军人认为这种行为是对是错,他们都遵照命令执行。然而一个叫辛德勒的德国人,不惜冒着生命危险,倾家荡产拯救了1200余名犹太人。 这不是因为这1200犹太人幸运,而是因为,即使是在战火纷飞罪恶横行的时期,依然有人能保留人性,做出正确的抉择。所以,正如那句诗写到,跪着的德国总理,比站着的日本首相高大。</div><div><br></div><div>宗教和哲学对于罪恶的本源描述出奇地一致:欲望与现实的巨大鸿沟。尼采曾经说过,生活的差异带来欲望,欲望导致痛苦。而一旦人的灵魂被这种痛苦占有和吞噬后,他很有可能会铤而走险以释缓这种痛苦并最终满足他的欲望。因此,成年人应该学会,或者借助外力,调整自己的欲望,用合理的途径使自己重新回归到符合社会价值的轨道上,而不是在罪恶的道路上越走越远。这才是成年人对自己行为最大程度的负责。</div><div><br></div><div>最后,我想起电影致命ID里的那首短诗:”When I was going up the stairs. I met a man who wasn't there. He wasn't there again today. I wish I wish he'd go away.”双重人格即便真实存在,也只是因为恶的人格带给大脑的愉悦感要远高于善的人格,所以才给了恶的人格存在的可能。但是我坚信,一个人必定有坚强的意志战胜内心深处的邪恶。总之,个人应该主要地对他们的行为负责,尤其是那些不正当行为,尽管在某些情况下环境和社会应该承担部分责任。</div><div><br></div><div>In the early chapter where the author first arranges Mr. Utterson to meet Mr. Hyde on the street, I realized that Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll were the same person. After all, this book is not a technically detective novel. When Mr. Utterson read Dr. Jekyll's letter "If I am the chief of sinners, I am the chief of sufferers also," I confirmed my judgment. The key problem is, whether we can admit the claim of requiring &nbsp;sympathy or forgiveness from the doctor.</div><div><br></div><div>Admittedly, the doctor is pathetic: his fame and reputation were destroyed by the demon whom the doctor has created himself. Or more pathetically, the soul of the honest, kind, modest doctor is locked in an ugly body, waiting for death with a wicked sin.</div><div><br></div><div>Perhaps, the doctor would argue that, he was born in a rich family and he was labeled as an elite by his parents and the society. In the public, his actions, words, and deeds must be generous and appropriate to meet his prestigious status. However, Dr. Jekyll was full of distress. He could neither express his true feelings nor enjoy the sense of accomplishment and happiness which could really please himself. He failed to get rid of this repressed emotion until he happened to discover a recipe, and after drinking the potion he could become a completely different person and carry out things he had long desired and dared not to do, including crime. This kind of stimuli was absolutely difficult for anyone to reject, especially for Dr. Jekyll, who has been wearing the mask for years and finally obtained the opportunity to relieve himself.</div><div><br></div><div>Perhaps, Dr. Jekyll can attribute his mistakes, including crimes committed by Mr. Hyde, to family or society. It is the external factor that shaped him into a person he did not want to be, so he could only present his so-called nature through other means. Ironically, the voices and conducts of the public can indirectly or even directly affect the justice and the mentality of those potential criminals. In the pursuit of absolute justice, the public expects to achieve maximum fairness in every case, regardless for the victims or the suspects.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>As described in the book, when Poole, the servant of Dr. Jekyll, explicitly told Mr. Utterson that the guy upstairs was not Dr. Jekyll, the lawyer still held an illusion in mind: “This is a very strange tale, Poole; this is rather a tale. My man." Because Mr. Utterson was unwilling to accept the fact that his old friends(and customer) to conduct stupid things. However, such idealized pursuit may lead to even greater tragedies. In the movie 12 Angry Men, Henry Fonda was originally the only person in the jury to support the boy as innocent. He eventually convinced 10 of the rest 11 people through his reasonable argument. This result seems to be a democratic victory. However, what if the boy is really a murderer and he deliberately sets up and leaves those ambiguous clues so that he can be free from the sentence, and then he might continue committing crimes unscrupulously afterwards.</div><div><br></div><div>More ironically, the public sometimes even become accomplice in crime, especially in the information age. In the movie Untraceable, the degree of torture on the victim will intensify along with the increase in the click rate from viewers on the Internet; the process of killing the victim will be shortened along with the increase in the click rate from viewers on the Internet. Some of these views are out of curiosity, and some are excited to watch such kind of scene. Others, &nbsp;just like Dr. Jekyll, &nbsp;can't present their guilty behavior in ordinary occasions but can release the evils in their innermost feelings via another way. So, who is the murderer in this movie? Not you or me alone, but everyone in the society. &nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>Hence, is it justifiable that adults can escape from their mal-behaviors by taking advantage of the excuse, such as family background, childhood misfortune, social media, and even mental status? Absolutely not. In fact, an adult, assuming that he completely &nbsp;understands and accepts the common social morality and justice system and that he is fully conscious, once he has committed a crime, he must receive the corresponding punishment in line with legal norms and cannot claim various excuses. Obviously, excessive mercy for the wicked is indeed a kind of indulgence to them, and, a trample on justice and conscience.</div><div><br></div><div>Or, &nbsp;is it because the law does not condemn the public, and everyone else is doing evil, I can also do evil thing without fear? During the most horrible tragedy in the modern history of mankind, Rwanda Genocide, around 0.8-1 million innocent people were brutally slaughtered in merely 2 months. Among the murderers, the inhabitants of Hutu are the major executioners. More horribly, teenager murderers can be seen everywhere to kill the victims. Yes, these murderers have not been punished by law afterwards. In the rest of their lives, however, they must suffer from the judgment of internal morality. On the contrary, during the Second World War, the German slaughtered the Jews without reason. No matter these German soldiers considered their behavior right or wrong, they all followed the orders. However, a German businessman named Schindler risked his life and went bankrupt to save more than 1,200 Jews. This is not because these 1200 Jews were lucky, but because even during the period of warfare and evil, a fraction of people can still retain humanity and make the right choices. Also, this is the reason why Ian Buruma says, the kneeling German Chancellor is taller than the standing Japanese Prime Minister.</div><div><br></div><div>Religion and philosophy are surprisingly consistent regarding the origin of sin: the huge gap between desire and reality. Nietzsche once said that the difference in life brings about desires, and desires lead to pain. Once the person's soul is occupied and devoured by this kind of pain, he is likely to take the risky behaviors to ease the pain and thus satisfy his desire. Therefore, adults should learn, or use external forces, to adjust their own desires and adopt reasonable ways to bring them back to the track of social values instead of being trapped deeper and deeper on the path to evil. That is the way how adults are utmost responsible for their actions.</div><div><br></div><div>Finally, I would like to cite the short poem in movie The Identity: "When I was going up the stairs. I met a man who wasn't there. He wasn't there again today. I wish I wish he'd go away. " Provided that the circumstance of dual personality does exist, it is only because the wicked personality offers the brain more pleasure than the good personality does, and such result further motivates the continuous existence of the evil personality. However, I strongly believe that a man must have the will to combat the evil in deep mind. In sum, individuals should be primarily responsible for their behaviors, especially those mal-behaviors, even though the surroundings and the society should assume part of the responsibility in some cases.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div>

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