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Chapter 6:High Frequency Words高频词到底是什么词,重要嘛?

热度 34已有 151 次阅读 |2018-8-9 15:40 |个人分类:幼少青英语父母联盟

Chapter 6:High Frequency Words

前篇说到,初级英语中70%单词可用Phonics拼读出来,意味着还剩余30%不符拼读规律的单词。其中就有High Frequency Words:共计220个高频词,是由美国学者E.W.Dolch在二次世界大战之前,针对英语儿童初级读物做了分析统计后整理出来的。

High Frequency Words在早期阅读书籍中出现率达到60%-85%,掌握了它们,就意味着在阅读中有50%以上的单词已经认识,其余的利用phonics拼读法试着读出,再结合读本中提供的图片以及前后文,做文意之猜测与理解,孩子基本就踏出英语阅读的第一步了。

v 高频词分级

这220个高频词中包括形容词、动词、连词、介词、代词和副词,但却不包括名词。由于名词更容易推陈出新,Dolch博士又特别研究整理了一份包含95个名词的补充常见词表。High Frequency Words从Pre-Primer到G3,由易到难,都有详细的需要掌握的单词列表。

Pre-primer: (40 words) a, and, away, big, blue, can, come, down, find, for, funny, go, help, here, I, in, is, it, jump, little, look, make, me, my, not, one, play, red, run, said, see, the, three, to, two, up, we, where, yellow, you

Primer: (52 words) all, am, are, at, ate, be, black, brown, but, came, did, do, eat, four, get, good, have, he, into, like, must, new, no, now, on, our, out, please, pretty, ran, ride, saw, say, she, so, soon, that, there, they, this, too, under, want, was, well, went, what, white, who, will, with, yes

1st Grade: (41 words) after, again, an, any, as, ask, by, could, every, fly, from, give, giving, had, has, her, him, his, how, just, know, let, live, may, of, old, once, open, over, put, round, some, stop, take, thank, them, then, think, walk, were, when

2nd Grade: (46 words) always, around, because, been, before, best, both, buy, call, cold, does, don't, fast, first, five, found, gave, goes, green, its, made, many, off, or, pull, read, right, sing, sit, sleep, tell, their, these, those, upon, us, use, very, wash, which, why, wish, work, would, write, your

3rd Grade: (41 words) about, better, bring, carry, clean, cut, done, draw, drink, eight, fall, far, full, got, grow, hold, hot, hurt, if, keep, kind, laugh, light, long, much, myself, never, nine, only, own, pick, seven, shall, show, six, small, start, ten, today, together, try, warm

Dolch Nouns:(95 words) apple, baby, back, ball, bear, bed, bell, bird, birthday, boat, box, boy, bread, brother, cake, car, cat, chair, chicken, children, Christmas, coat, corn, cow, day, dog, doll, door, duck, egg, eye, farm, farmer, father, feet, fire, fish, floor, flower, game, garden, girl, good-bye, grass, ground, hand, head, hill, home, horse, house, kitty, leg, letter, man, men, milk, money, morning, mother, name, nest, night, paper, party, picture, pig, rabbit, rain, ring, robin, Santa Claus, school, seed, sheep, shoe, sister, snow, song, squirrel, stick, street, sun, table, thing, time, top, toy, tree, watch, water, way, wind, window, wood

v 巩固高频词的建议

上图展示了每个年龄段的母语孩子所需要掌握的高频词。美国小学GK开始,对于High Frequency Words的要求就不仅仅是Read(能读),同时需要Spell(拼写)和Write(书写),Read的程度从“熟悉”过渡到“看到它们连脑子都不用动就能反映出意思”的程度,做到快速发音,理解词义,拼写正确,就像条件反射一样。其中一些词看似简单,实际上非常抽象,需要好好理解。

学习高频词的方法就是大量的重复的听说读写,并且需要真的可以常常看见,保证一定Exposure(曝光量),才能进行被动记忆,植入心智深处。美国小学把本学期常见词的词卡布置在Word Wall(词墙)上,并在课堂中用大量的视频、纸质练习,课堂游戏等来做巩固。

推荐一套台湾东西图书出版的《Sight Word Kids》高频词专项书,手绘风格非常可爱,循序渐进地教授不同级别的常见词,配合视频和点读版教材,孩子可自主操作。如果想要锻炼或测试阅读速度,可以准备一套学乐出版的《Sight Words Tales》绘本,不仅能提高识字技巧,还能培养阅读兴趣。有的孩子起步晚但认知度高,需要短期内掌握所有高频词,推荐《The Complete Book of Sight Words》,220个高频词对应每个使用图片场景,也可以单独作为课外练习册使用。




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发表评论 评论 (25 个评论)

回复 NIT2WNIT蔺雷阳 2018-8-9 16:49
感谢分享好资源
回复 晓晓的猫头 2018-8-9 22:51
  
回复 huke2005 2018-8-10 06:50
高频词就是经常使用的词,当然有用了
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